Author Archives: The Refusers

Hollywood Reporter Announces Best Vaccine-Free Doctors and Celebrities

By MB Sep 11, 2014

The Hollywood Reporter (THR) has done the vaccine freedom movement a favor with its latest attack on vaccine refusers.

In a vain attempt to discredit anyone who isn’t a slave to the ridiculous CDC vaccine schedule, THR ‘outed’ vaccine-free celebrity moms, dads and their pediatricians.

Unfortunately for their Vaccine Gestapo agenda, the moms and docs they attempt to discredit come across as way more credible than the vaccination zealots.

So if you are a Southern California resident looking for a sympathetic pediatrician or moral support from intelligent and informed vaccine refusers, this HR article provides some useful information.

DrJayGordonLike Dr. Jay Gordon who speaks in favor of alternate vaccine schedules.

Refusers R us.

Hollywood’s Vaccine Wars: L.A.’s “Entitled” Westsiders Behind City’s Epidemic
The Hollywood Reporter Sept 10, 2014

There may be a safer way to vaccinate each individual kid, taking into consideration the family’s travels, the family’s history,” says Santa Monica-based Dr. Jay Gordon, the most influential pediatrician among Westside vaccine decliners. (His Twitter followers include Alanis Morissette, Jenna Dewan Tatum, Kristin Davis and Emily Deschanel.) Gordon, like Sears, concedes that opponents have issued him “a nasty challenge” to support his deviation from the endorsed schedule timeline, “and you’re right, I can’t prove it.” His devotees don’t need him to. For instance, actress Ione Skye, herself a former Gordon patient (“I never had antibiotics growing up; he really went the natural route”) who now brings in her own two daughters to see the physician, believes that the alternative path she and her husband, musician Ben Lee, have chosen makes “instinctive” sense. “With my kids, I spaced them out and waited and missed some,” she says. “As a mother, it just felt better to me —and my kids never had any reaction.” …

According to those on both sides of the issue, this demographic is unafraid to take on the medical establishment. “They are not intimidated by the authority of the doctor,” says Brendan Nyhan, Ph.D, a political scientist at Dartmouth who has studied parents who are vaccine skeptics. “Educated, high-income people are more likely to feel confident in standing up to doctors or seeking out ones who are more favorable to alternative schedules and selective vaccination.” …

“It’s a sense of entitlement and it comes out of a customer mentality since they are often choosing their doctor and paying cash,” says Dr. Nina Shapiro, the director of pediatric otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat conditions) at UCLA’s Geffen School of Medicine and a vocal critic of anti-vaccine sentiment.

Read the article

Posted in The Blog | 1 Comment

New Study In Journal Of Public Health Finds Autism And Cancer Related To Human Fetal DNA In Vaccines

Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute  Sep 8, 2014
Contact: Katie Doan 206-906-9922 PST Email:

r2(Seattle) A new study published in the September 2014 volume of the Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology reveals a significant correlation between autism disorder (AD) and MMR, Varicella (chickenpox) and Hepatitis-A vaccines.

Using statistical analysis and data from the US Government, UK, Denmark and Western Australia, scientists at Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute (SCPI) found that increases in autistic disorder correspond with the introduction of vaccines using human fetal cell lines and retroviral contaminants.

Even more alarming, Dr Theresa Deisher, lead scientist and SCPI founder noted that, “Not only are the human fetal contaminated vaccines associated with autistic disorder throughout the world, but also with epidemic childhood leukemia and lymphomas.”

Their study comes on the heels of recent breaking news that the CDC deliberately withheld evidence of the significant increase in autism among African-American boys who were vaccinated prior to 36 months of age. (See:

So it should come as no surprise that the FDA has known for decades about the dangers of insertional mutagenesis by using the human fetal cell lines and yet, they chose to ignore it. Instead of conducting safety studies they regulated the amount of human DNA that could be present in a vaccine to no greater than 10ng. (

Unfortunately, Dr. Deisher’s team discovered that the fetal DNA levels ranged anywhere from 142ng – 2000ng per dose, way beyond the so-called “safe” level.

“There are a large number of publications about the presence of HERV (human endogenous retrovirus – the only re-activatable endogenous retrovirus) and its association with childhood lymphoma,” noted Dr Deisher. “The MMR II and chickenpox vaccines and indeed all vaccines that were propagated or manufactured using the fetal cell line WI-38 are contaminated with this retrovirus. And both parents and physicians have a right to know this!”

Certainly these discoveries by SCPI should generate an immediate investigation by FDA officials, if not an outright ban on the use of aborted fetal cell lines as substrates for vaccine production. There are numerous other non-human FDA-approved cell lines that can and should be used.

Dr Deisher’s study is available on the Academic Journals website at: or on their website at

Dr. Theresa Deisher is a PhD in Molecular and Cellular Physiology from Stanford University with over 20 years in commercial biotechnology, prior to founding AVM Biotechnology and Sound Choice Pharmaceutical Institute. As an inventor of 23 issued US patents she is world-renowned for her work in adult stem cell research and the first to discover adult cardiac derived stem cells. Dr. Deisher was a plaintiff in the US federal lawsuit to prohibit the use of taxpayer dollars for embryo destructive research, which resulted in steering science towards adult stem cell research and 14 US FDA approved adult stem cell products.

Read the full study

Posted in The Blog | 1 Comment

CNN iReport on CDC Whistleblower Spreads like Wildfire, then Censored

by Jon Rappoport of No More Fake News Aug 24, 2014

CensorshipOn August 22, a user named Bobby Dee posted a CNN iReport about the CDC whistleblower who states he cooked data to hide a vaccine-autism connection.

CNN iReports aren’t official CNN stories. They’re “user generated news…opinions belong to the submitter.”

Well, Bobby’s submission, as Celia Farber reports at, rocketed to 45,232 views in a matter of hours. 178 comments, 17 thousand shares.

Story 1

Story 2

Then it was axed, removed, deleted.

printed the usual tired explanation. The iReport had been “flagged.” It was “in violation of iReport’s policy.”

Translation: Lots of people cared about the report, wanted to read it, it was getting more action than a great deal of what CNN calls news—and it implied something was wrong in the Holy Temple of the Vaccine.

So CNN axed it.

It’s gone.

CNN claims that when an iReport goes “virish,” they then “vet” the report to make sure it’s accurate. Look around and see if you can find examples where this has taken place. So far, I don’t see any—except for Bobby Dee’s report.


Here is what Bobby Dee posted on CNN’s iReport, before it was taken down:

“William W Thompson, PhD, Senior Scientist, National Center of Birth Defects and Development Disabilities, has stepped forward and admitted the 2004 paper [which found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism] was a fraud.

“Dr. Thompson has admitted the 340% increase [in autism] in boys receiving the MMR vaccine ‘on time’ as opposed to delayed was buried by himself, Dr. DeStefano, Dr. Bhasin, Dr. Yeargin-Allsopp, and Dr. Boyle [all co-authors of the 2004 paper]…”

CNN makes up the news as it goes along and as it receives marching orders from its “reliable sources,” but a citizen with actual news must be stopped.

An editor at CNN told Bobby Dee she would contact Brian Hooker, who played a central role in bringing whistleblower Thompson’s confession forward to the public—but so far, she hasn’t.

CNN: the most trusted name in twisted information.

CNN headquarters are right down the street in Atlanta from the CDC, where the MMR vaccine data were cooked, stepped on, and buried.

I guess it’s just too much trouble for a reporter or editor to hop in a cab and go over there and ask a few tough questions.

Well, there are really no questions to ask, are there? CNN and the CDC are the “already asked and answered” dancing twins, who can read each other’s minds.

Vaccines? Never met one they didn’t love. Adverse effects? Damage? Never heard of such a thing.

“What do you want to be when you grow up, Jimmy?”

“I want to be a mouthpiece for the vaccine cartel, Daddy.”

“That’s wonderful, son. Try CNN.”

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song It’s Only a Coincidence

Read the article

Posted in The Blog | Leave a comment

Revealed: CDC Whistleblower Who Falsified MMR/Autism Safety Study

The CDC scientist who faked MMR/autism data at the request of CDC bosses is revealed in this excellent video: William Thompson CDC.

Brian Hooker PhD: “He has released quite compelling information regarding fraud and malfeasance in the CDC.”

William Thompson CDC: “It’s the lowest point of my career that I went along with that paper … we didn’t report significant findings.”

William Thompson CDC: “The higher ups wanted to do certain things and I went along with it.”

William Thompson CDC: “I’m completely ashamed of what I did … I have great shame now when I meet families with kids with autism because I have been part of the problem.”

William Thompson CDC: “Oh my God, I cannot believe we did what we did.”

William Thompson CDC: “I have stopped lying.”


Fraudulent Thompson/CDC study: MMR vaccination and autism: is there a link? DeStefano F, Thompson WW.

Fraudulent Thompson/CDC study: MMR vaccine and autism: an update of the scientific evidence. DeStefano F1, Thompson WW.

New PubMed study by Brian Hooker re-examining original MMR/autism data concealed by CDC

PubMed.Gov - Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination timing and autism among young african american boys: a reanalysis of CDC data. August 8, 2014 

Background: A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses.

Conclusions: The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis.


Posted in The Blog | 1 Comment

More Flu Vaccine Cockamamie – Dr. Brownstein MD

MB Comment: The biggest flaw in this ridiculous study sponsored by vaccine manufacturer Sanofi is there was no unvaccinated control group. Without that information, the vaccinated could have a HIGHER rate of flu than the unvaccinated

By Dr. David Brownstein MD August 20, 2014

Researchers reported in the New England Journal of Medicine (August 14, 2014) that a high dose flu vaccine was more effective than the standard flu vaccine for seniors. The vaccine is called Fluzone High Dose vaccine. Of course, the media jumped on this report. In the Healthday article, the chief medical office for Sanofi-Pasteur—the Big Pharma company who funded the study—stated, “The study demonstrated a 24 percent reduction in influenza illness among the participants who received the high-dose vaccine compared to those who received the standard dose.”

To date, no flu vaccine has shown any significant efficacy in seniors. A 24 percent reduction in influenza illness in seniors would certainly be something to celebrate.

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song Do You Want a Flu Shot

When medical students and residents rotate through my office, the first thing I do is hand them an article and ask them to explain the statistical methods used by the researchers. Over the years, I have had one student/doctor who understood statistics enough to understand how research articles are reported. I always tell the students/doctors that if they don’t know how to properly read the original research articles, they cannot make a proper decision on whether the particular therapy is useful or not.

After seeing the media article, I pulled the flu research article and read it. Here are the results: 31,989 participants were enrolled form 126 research centers in the U.S. and Canada. Half were given the standard flu vaccine and half given the high dose vaccine.

1.4% of the seniors who received the high dose vaccine became ill with the flu and 1.9% of the seniors who received the standard flu vaccine developed the flu.

(I hope you are not laughing as I did when I read that.)

How in the world did they report a 24% lowered incidence of the flu with the use of the high-dose vaccine? Simply dividing 1.4% by 1.9% gives the relative risk reduction of 24%. However, this is a relative risk reduction—a useless number to use when deciding whether a therapy is good for any patient.

A better analysis of this data involves calculating the absolute risk. The absolute risk, according the New England Journal of Medicine, is better to use when deciding whether a particular therapy is warranted for an individual patient. The absolute risk is the difference between the treated and untreated group. What is the absolute risk difference in this study? 1.9 percent minus 1.4 percent which equals 0.5 percent or 0.005. That means that, according to this study, 200 seniors (1/.005) would have to be vaccinated with the high-dose flu vaccine to prevent one case of the flu. Here’s my interpretation of this study:  This study shows that the high dose flu vaccine is a colossal failure as the results indicate that 99.5 percent of seniors who get this vaccine will not receive any benefit.

So, 200 seniors must receive a vaccine to prevent one case of the flu. What is the cost of that? I called my local CVS and was told that the cost of the flu vaccine was $32.00/dose. Multiplying the numbers reveals that it costs $6,400 dollars to vaccinate all those people.

What a waste of money. That amount of money could buy a lot of vitamin C which would not only help the immune system but also provide the body with an essential nutrient.

What is the take-away? Just say “no” to the flu vaccine.

Folks, don’t be fooled here. This study was another failed flu vaccine study. The flu vaccine has never been shown to protect the elderly from getting the flu, dying from the flu, or developing complications from the flu. The elderly would be better served by eating a better diet, maintaining hydration and taking vitamin C.

Read the article

Posted in The Blog | Leave a comment

Junking Down Our Food Supply With Monsanto Herbicide

Dr. Thierry Vrain - Common Ground – June 8

• Dr. Thierry Vrain, a former soil biologist and genetic scientist, worked for Agriculture Canada for 30 years. He was the designated spokesperson to assure the public of the safety of GMO crops. Since retiring 10 years ago from Agriculture Canada, Dr. Vrain now warns of the dangers of GMOs.

It is high time to change the debate from the safety of engineering food to the pesticides that are inside the food. The technology is essentially about spraying a weed killer on the crops and the herbicide RoundUp is an integral part of the technology – the engineered crops are called RoundUp Ready. Farmers everywhere have been assured complete safety, higher yields and savings of herbicide. When these promises don’t quite pan out, the farmers don’t have much of an opportunity to do something different. It turns out the technology has been incredibly successful, so much so that there is not much of a market for non-engineered seeds now. Monsanto has a monopoly and has cornered the seed supply of much of the planet.

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song Let’s Roundup Monsanto

Since all engineered foods come from crops sprayed with RoundUp, they all contain residues of RoundUp. And it turns out other crops are also sprayed with this herbicide, but much later, just before harvest, because it kills the plants and they are dried fast to make harvesting easier for the farmers. This is commonly done with sugar cane, beans, grains, potatoes and many other crops. I usually say in my lectures that if you want to avoid any residue of RoundUp herbicide in your food, go organic. That is the only choice.

A bit of history to show why RoundUp should be avoided: in the early 60’s, a small chemical company was testing new molecules that could be used to clean industrial pipes and boilers of mineral deposits – just like the kettle in your home that makes mineral deposits after a few months or years. In 1964, the company, called Stauffer Chemicals, patented their best molecule. It was named glyphosate and described as a strong and very broad spectrum descaling agent. A descaling agent is a chelator in chemistry and biology lingo. A chelator is a molecule that can grab onto and hold metal ions.

Within a few years, the descaling agent was also found to kill plants very effectively. It was then bought and patented in 1969 as an exceptionally broad spectrum herbicide by a bigger chemical corporation named Monsanto. The 70’s were the years of my graduate work in North Carolina and I remember RoundUp being touted as the new wonder herbicide. Allegedly, it was non-toxic to animals, had no effect on the environment and biodegraded rapidly. It was a really effective weed killer that grew very popular very fast.

Starting with the first two engineered crops, corn and soybean, engineered to survive being doused with the weed killer, the spread of the technology since 1996 has been nothing but revolutionary. This is seen as high-tech agriculture – a gene revolution after the green revolution. In 2013, there were about 500-million acres of engineered crops and 90% of them were doused liberally with close to two billion pounds of glyphosate. The molecule is so ubiquitous, it is now found in our food, our drinking water, the rain and most importantly, in our bodies.

Life is movement and movement is an activity that only one kind of molecule can perform in living cells. Proteins are the only molecules that can move. Their movement relies on metal ions that are an integral part of the protein molecules. Proteins with metal ions are called metallo-proteins, also known as enzymes. All enzymes of all living cells rely on their metal cofactors for proper function. If the metal ions are not available, the protein molecules cannot function, the cells malfunction, the organs slow down and show disease symptoms.

So in one corner we have all living cells – which include bacteria, fungi, plants and animals – that must find metal micronutrients in their food to have a normal function. And in the other corner we have nearly two billion pounds of a chemical that functions by grabbing onto metal ions and holding on – making them bio-unavailable. If you find the imagery disturbing, read on. In 2010, glyphosate was also patented as an antibiotic by Monsanto. Obviously, the plan was to use it in hospitals and pharmacies. The patent contains a very long list of bacteria killed by this chemical; this is a very broad spectrum antibiotic and indeed damages the microbiome of animals. It does not affect many human pathogenic bacteria, but it certainly kills a lot of bacteria.

In case you did not notice that word, microbiome, I will say a few words about this organ. It turns out all animals – even the bees – are symbiotic organisms with thousands of species of bacteria in their digestive system. We humans have about one hundred trillion bacteria in our intestine. Aside from riding with us and getting fed, this complex bacterial community actually controls many of our organs. Our immune system, our brain and many other organs are completely “influenced” (if you do not like the word control). We humans may think we are on top, but we are in a very dependent and symbiotic relationship with these bacteria. Firstly, they make most of the serotonin in your body. A small malfunction and a small decrease in serotonin and you are depressed. They make most of the other neurotransmitters too and your vitamins and half of the building blocks of your own proteins – too complex for your bodies to make. The microbiome is like a second brain. That is how important it is.

When you eat engineered food – by definition, depleted of metal micronutrients because it contains residues of a strong chelator – your microbiome and your intestine are, of course, first in line. After a few years of eating depleted food, other organs start to show symptoms. This is shown in the statistics of both the Centre for Disease Control in Atlanta Georgia and the US Department of Agriculture, put together by Dr. Nancy Swanson for the US. I wish somebody would do the same compilation in Canada. The statistics show a very probable link between the amount of glyphosate sprayed on crops and the number of people coming down with gastrointestinal problems, kidney inflammation, liver damage and a host of other degenerative (read inflammation) diseases. These are very similar to the symptoms we have seen for the last 10 years in published studies of rats fed engineered food. Calorie rich and nutrient depleted, isn’t that the definition of junk food?

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song Right To Know

Read the article

Posted in The Blog | Leave a comment

New Study Claiming Vaccines Are Safe Has Suspicious Origins

By Health Sciences Institute  July 17, 2014

Vaccine alert: Don’t be tricked by this deceptive new ‘study’

memeStilllWaitingForMainstreamMediaIt’s a shameful example of corporate propaganda dressed up as a scientific study.

And the media moles bought it hook, line and sinker.

You probably saw some of the news coverage — it was everywhere.

Stories with headlines that said “Large study confirms that childhood vaccinations are safe.” Or this one from USA Today: “Study finds vaccine side effects extremely rare.”

This latest “research” is meant to “give parents some reassurance,” and counter all that “misinformation out there about vaccines” said the authors.

But even they couldn’t hide all of the facts.

And that’s how I discovered the shocking truth about the “study” that’s behind all the headlines.

Big Pharma knows its vaccination ship is sinking. And it’s doing whatever it can to try and keep it afloat.

That’s because more and more parents are questioning the safety of these shots.

And what was just published in the journal Pediatrics is a brazen attempt to turn things around for vaccine makers. But when you look at the real story, suddenly what these people are saying holds about as much water as a leaky bucket.

The researchers set out to “reassure” parents on the safety of vaccines, as that’s “critical for population health.” And to do that, they pulled data from published studies, vaccine makers, the CDC and reports by other federal agencies.

And their conclusion, the one that made all the headlines, is that “vaccines are very safe.”

But hold on. There are some tidbits here that throw that conclusion right out the window.

To begin with these researchers started with 20,000 studies, but only used 67 for their report. Talk about cherry-picking your data!

But here’s what makes the whole thing a joke. And if it weren’t so serious we could all have a good laugh over it.

They omitted all the reports sent to VAERS — the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System!

Are you kidding me? These researchers are doing a study on vaccine safety and they don’t even bother to include reports of vaccine side effects sent into this federal program!

VAERS was set up, and is run by the CDC and FDA, to collect data about adverse reactions from vaccines. Also, vaccine manufacturers, by law, must report any side effects they are aware of to VAERS.

The program receives over 30,000 reports annually. And it says that 13 percent of those are “serious.” Things like disability, life-threatening illness…and death. Since it started collecting data in 1990, it’s received over 200,000 such reports.

And magically, none of those reports made it into this “study.”

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song Unavoidably Unsafe

But the researchers wanted to make sure it looked like they were doing their job. That is if you don’t look too far.

So they included a brief mention of what they called “rare but actual side effects.” Things like the MMR shot causing seizures, or the flu vaccine causing diarrhea, or the rotavirus vaccine giving some kids a serious bowel disorder.

Well that’s certainly “reassuring!”

But here’s the icing on the cake — and it will explain a lot.

Nine out of 10 of the authors of this study come from the RAND Corporation. That’s the mostly federally funded “think tank” that produces “official” studies to support its sponsors.

And two big RAND “clients” are GlaxoSmithKline and Merck.

Unfortunately that news won’t make it into the headlines. Because if it did, those headlines would read something like this:

“Study sponsored by Big Pharma claims its vaccines are safe. Ignores over 200,000 reports of adverse effects.”

And if it said that, I doubt we ever would have seen the story.


“Vaccine side effects are very, very rare” July 2, 2014, The Huffington Post,

RAND Corporation annual report 2013,

Read the article

Posted in The Blog | 5 Comments

Tetanus Shot: How Do We Know That It Works? ~ By Tetyana Obukhanych, PhD

International Medical Council on Vaccination      July 10, 2014

By Tetyana Obukhanych, PhD


Although a major disease in tropical under-developed countries, tetanus in the USA has been very rare. In the past, tetanus occurred primarily in poor segments of the population in southern states and in Mexican migrants in California. It was swiftly diminishing with each decade prior to the 1950s (in the pre-vaccination era), as inferred from tetanus mortality records and similar case-fatality ratios (about 67-70%) in the early 20th century[8] versus the mid-20th century).[9] The tetanus vaccine was introduced in the USA in 1947 without performing any placebo-controlled clinical trials in the segment of the population (children or adults), where it is now routinely used …

Severe and even deadly tetanus is known to occur in recently vaccinated people with high levels of serum antitoxin.[11] Although the skeptic might say that no vaccine is effective 100% of the time, the situation with the tetanus vaccine is quite different. In these cases of vaccine-unpreventable tetanus, vaccination was actually very effective in inducing serum antitoxin, but serum antitoxin did not appear to have helped preventing tetanus in these unfortunate individuals.

The occurrence of tetanus despite the presence of antitoxin in the serum should have raised a red flag regarding the rationale of the tetanus vaccination program. But such reports were invariably interpreted as an indication that higher than previously thought levels of serum antitoxin must be maintained to protect from tetanus, hence the need for more frequent, if not incessant, boosters. Then how much higher “than previously thought” do serum levels of antitoxin need to be to ensure protection from tetanus?

Crone & Reder (1992) have documented a curious case of severe tetanus in a 29-year old man with no pre-existing conditions and no history of drug abuse, typical among modern-day tetanus victims in the USA. In addition to the regular series of tetanus immunization and boosters ten years earlier during his military service, this patient had been hyper-immunized (immunized with the tetanus toxoid to have extremely high serum antitoxin) as a volunteer for the purposes of the commercial TIG production. He was monitored for the levels of antitoxin in his serum and, as expected, developed extremely high levels of antitoxin after the hyper-immunization procedure. Nevertheless, he incurred severe tetanus 51 days after the procedure despite clearly documented presence of serum antitoxin prior to the disease. In fact, upon hospital admission for tetanus treatment his serum antitoxin levels measured about 2,500 times higher than the level deemed protective. His tetanus was severe and required more than five weeks of hospitalization with life-saving measures. This case demonstrated that serum antitoxin has failed to prevent severe tetanus even in the amounts 2,500 times higher than what is considered sufficient for tetanus prevention in adults.



Severe and even deadly tetanus is known to occur in recently vaccinated people with high levels of serum antitoxin.[11] Although the skeptic might say that no vaccine is effective 100% of the time, the situation with the tetanus vaccine is quite different. In these cases of vaccine-unpreventable tetanus, vaccination was actually very effective in inducing serum antitoxin, but serum antitoxin did not appear to have helped preventing tetanus in these unfortunate individuals.

The occurrence of tetanus despite the presence of antitoxin in the serum should have raised a red flag regarding the rationale of the tetanus vaccination program. But such reports were invariably interpreted as an indication that higher than previously thought levels of serum antitoxin must be maintained to protect from tetanus, hence the need for more frequent, if not incessant, boosters. Then how much higher “than previously thought” do serum levels of antitoxin need to be to ensure protection from tetanus?

Crone & Reder (1992) have documented a curious case of severe tetanus in a 29-year old man with no pre-existing conditions and no history of drug abuse, typical among modern-day tetanus victims in the USA. In addition to the regular series of tetanus immunization and boosters ten years earlier during his military service, this patient had been hyper-immunized (immunized with the tetanus toxoid to have extremely high serum antitoxin) as a volunteer for the purposes of the commercial TIG production. He was monitored for the levels of antitoxin in his serum and, as expected, developed extremely high levels of antitoxin after the hyper-immunization procedure. Nevertheless, he incurred severe tetanus 51 days after the procedure despite clearly documented presence of serum antitoxin prior to the disease. In fact, upon hospital admission for tetanus treatment his serum antitoxin levels measured about 2,500 times higher than the level deemed protective. His tetanus was severe and required more than five weeks of hospitalization with life-saving measures. This case demonstrated that serum antitoxin has failed to prevent severe tetanus even in the amounts 2,500 times higher than what is considered sufficient for tetanus prevention in adults.

Ascorbic acid in tetanus treatment

Anti-serum is not the only therapeutic measure tried in tetanus treatment. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) has also been tried. Early research on ascorbic acid has demonstrated that it too could neutralize the tetanus toxin.[12]

In a clinical study of tetanus treatment conducted in Bangladesh in 1984, the administration of conventional procedures, including the anti-tetanus serum, to patients who contracted tetanus left 74% of them dead in the 1-12 age group and 68% dead in the 13-30 age group. In contrast, daily co-administration of one gram of ascorbic acid intravenously had cut down this high mortality to 0% in the 1-12 age group, and to 37% in the 13-30 age group.[13] The older patients were treated with the same amount of ascorbic acid without adjustments for their body weight …

Natural resistance to tetanus

In the early 20th century, investigators Drs. Carl Tenbroeck and Johannes Bauer pursued a line of laboratory research, which was much closer to addressing natural resistance to tetanus than the typical laboratory research on antitoxin in their days. Omitted from immunologic textbooks and the history of immunologic research, their tetanus protection experiments in guinea pigs, together with relevant serological and bacteriological data in humans, nevertheless provide a good explanation for tetanus being a rather rare disease in many countries around the world …

In 1926, already being aware that oral exposure to tetanus spores does not lead to clinical tetanus, Drs. Tenbroeck and Bauer set out to determine whether feeding research animals with tetanus spores could provide protection from tetanus induced by an appropriate laboratory method of spore injection. In their experiment, several groups of guinea pigs were given food containing distinct strains of C. tetani. A separate group of animals were used as controls—their diet was free of any C. tetani. After six months, all groups were injected under the skin with spores premixed with aleuronat. The groups that were previously exposed to spores orally did not develop any symptoms of tetanus upon such tetanus-prone spore injection, whereas the control group did. The observed protection was strain-specific, as animals still got tetanus if injected with spores from a mismatched strain—a strain they were not fed with. But when fed multiple strains, they developed protection from all of them.

Quite striking, the protection from tetanus established via spore feeding did not have anything to do with the levels of antitoxin in the serum of these animals. Instead, the protection correlated with the presence of another type of antibody called agglutinin—so named due to its ability to agglutinate (clump together) C. tetani spores in a test tube. Just like the observed protection was strain-specific, agglutinins were also strain-specific. These data are consistent with the role of strain-specific agglutinins, not of antitoxin, in natural protection from tetanus. The mechanism thereby strain-specific agglutinins have caused, or correlated with, tetanus protection in these animals has remained unexplored …

How do these experimental data in research animals relate to humans? In the early 20th century, not only animals but also humans were found to be intestinal carriers of C. tetani without developing tetanus. About 33% of tested human subjects living around Beijing, China were found to be C. tetani carriers without any prior or current history of tetanus disease.[15] Bauer & Meyer (1926) cite other studies, which have reported around 25% of tested humans being healthy C. tetani carriers in other regions of China, 40% in Germany, 16% in England, and on average 25% in the USA, highest in central California and lowest on the southern coast. Based on the California study, age, gender, or occupation denoting the proximity to horses did not appear to play a role in the distribution of human C. tetani carriers.

Another study was performed back in the 1920s in San Francisco, CA.[16] About 80% of the examined subjects had various levels of agglutinins to as many as five C. tetani strains at a time, although no antitoxin could be detected in the serum of these subjects. C. tetani organisms could not be identified in the stool of these subjects either. It is likely that tetanus spores were in their gut transiently in the past, leaving serological evidence of oral exposure, without germinating into toxin-producing organisms …

Regrettably, further research on naturally acquired agglutinins and on exactly how they are involved in the protection from clinical tetanus appears to have been abandoned in favor of more lucrative research on antitoxin and vaccines. If such research continued, it would have given us clear understanding of natural tetanus defenses we may already have by virtue of our oral exposure to ubiquitous inactive C. tetani spores.

Since the extent of our natural resistance to clinical tetanus is unknown due to the lack of modern studies, all we can be certain of is that preventing dormant tetanus spores from germinating into toxin-producing microorganisms is an extremely important measure in the management of potentially contaminated skin cuts and wounds. If this crucial stage of control—at the level of preventing spore germination—is missed and the toxin production ensues, the toxin must be neutralized before it manages to reach nerve endings.

Both antitoxin and ascorbic acid exhibit toxin-neutralizing properties in a test tube. In the body, however, vaccine-induced antitoxin is located in the blood, whereas the toxin might be focally produced in the skin or muscle injury. This creates an obvious physical impediment for toxin neutralization to happen effectively, if at all, by means of vaccine-induced serum antitoxin. Furthermore, no placebo-controlled trials have ever been performed to rule out the concern about such an impediment by providing clear empirical evidence for the effectiveness of tetanus shots in children and adults. Nevertheless, the medical establishment relies upon induction of serum antitoxin and withholds ascorbic acid in tetanus prevention and treatment.

When an old medical procedure of unknown effectiveness, such as the tetanus shot, has been the standard of medical care for a long time, finalizing its effectiveness via a modern rigorous placebo-controlled trial is deemed unethical in human research. Therefore, our only hope for the advancement of tetanus care is that further investigation of the ascorbic acid therapy is performed and that this therapy becomes available to tetanus patients around the world, if confirmed effective by rigorous bio-statistical standards.

Until then, may the blind faith in the tetanus shot help us!


1. Tenbroeck, C. & Bauer, J.H. The immunity produced by the growth of tetanus bacilli in the digestive tract. J Exp Med 43, 361-377 (1926).
2. Fishman, P.S., Matthews, C.C., Parks, D.A., Box, M. & Fairweather, N.F. Immunization does not interfere with uptake and transport by motor neurons of the binding fragment of tetanus toxin. J Neurosci Res 83, 1540-1543 (2006).
3. Schofield, F.D., Tucker, V.M. & Westbrook, G.R. Neonatal tetanus in New Guinea. Effect of active immunization in pregnancy. Br Med J 2, 785-789 (1961).
4. Newell, K.W., Dueñas Lehmann, A., LeBlanc, D.R. & Garces Osorio, N. The use of toxoid for the prevention of tetanus neonatorum. Final report of a double-blind controlled field trial. Bull World Health Organ 35, 863-871 (1966).
5. Demicheli, V., Barale, A. & Rivetti, A. Vaccines for women to prevent neonatal tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 5:CD002959 (2013).
6. Maselle, S.Y., Matre, R., Mbise, R. & Hofstad, T. Neonatal tetanus despite protective serum antitoxin concentration. FEMS Microbiol Immunol 3, 171-175 (1991).
7. Fox, S.B. & Khong, T.Y. Lack of innervation of human umbilical cord. An immunohistological and histochemical study. Placenta 11, 59-62 (1990).
8. Bauer, J.H. & Meyer, K.F. Human intestinal carriers of tetanus spores in California J Infect Dis 38, 295-305 (1926).
9. LaForce, F.M., Young, L.S. & Bennett, J.V. Tetanus in the United States (1965-1966): epidemiologic and clinical features. N Engl J Med 280, 569-574 (1969).
10. Editorial: Tetanus in the United States Army in World War II. N Engl J Med 237, 411-413 (1947).
11. Abrahamian, F.M., Pollack, C.V., Jr., LoVecchio, F., Nanda, R. & Carlson, R.W. Fatal tetanus in a drug abuser with “protective” antitetanus antibodies. J Emerg Med 18, 189-193 (2000).
Beltran, A. et al. A case of clinical tetanus in a patient with protective antitetanus antibody level. South Med J 100, 83 (2007).
Berger, S.A., Cherubin, C.E., Nelson, S. & Levine, L. Tetanus despite preexisting antitetanus antibody. JAMA 240, 769-770 (1978).
Crone, N.E. & Reder, A.T. Severe tetanus in immunized patients with high anti-tetanus titers. Neurology 42, 761-764 (1992).
Passen, E.L. & Andersen, B.R. Clinical tetanus despite a protective level of toxin-neutralizing antibody. JAMA 255, 1171-1173 (1986).
Pryor, T., Onarecker, C. & Coniglione, T. Elevated antitoxin titers in a man with generalized tetanus. J Fam Pract 44, 299-303 (1997).
12. Jungeblut, C.W. Inactivation of tetanus toxin by crystalline vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid). J Immunol 33, 203-214 (1937).
13. Jahan, K., Ahmad, K. & Ali, M.A. Effect of ascorbic acid in the treatment of tetanus. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 10, 24-28 (1984).
14. Hemilä, H. & Koivula, T. Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD006665 (2008).
15. Tenbroeck, C. & Bauer, J.H. The tetanus bacillus as an intestinal saprophyte in man. J Exp Med 36, 261-271 (1922).
16. Coleman, G.E. & Meyer, K.F. Study of tetanus agglutinins and antitoxin in human serums. J Infect Dis 39, 332-336 (1926).

Read the entire source article 

Posted in The Blog | 1 Comment

Fast Food Fever: The Impact Of Western Diet On Immunity – BioMed Central

This new study from the Nutrition Journal reviews how fast food and GMOs destroy immunity and how junk food DNA modifications are passed to children.

‘Poor dietary behaviors are encoded into both our DNA scaffolding and gut microbiome, and thus these harmful immune modifications are passed to our offspring during their most critical developmental window.’ 

Fast food fever: reviewing the impacts of the Western diet on immunity

Ian A Myles

Nutrition Journal    17 June 2014

Our over abundance of calories and the macronutrients that compose our diet may all lead to increased inflammation, reduced control of infection, increased rates of cancer, and increased risk for allergic and auto-inflammatory disease …

Obese individuals have fewer white blood cells to fight infection and those cells they do possess have reduced phagocytosis capability …

In vitro evidence suggest processed, simple sugars also reduce white blood cell phagocytosis and possibly increase inflammatory cytokine markers in the blood …

Evidence implicates saccharin and sucralose as contributors to Crohn’s and Ulcerative Colitis via interference with homeostatic inactivation of digestive proteases …

Recent focus and technologic advances have allowed accurate elucidation of the mechanisms by which our lifestyle impacts our microbiome and leads to dysbiosis. In the gut (and on the skin), there is an optimal, albeit not yet fully elucidated, balance of bacterial species. Some strains of bacteria are needed to digest dietary fibers [91] while others produce valuable nutrients like vitamin K [92]. Beneficial bacteria aide their hosts by occupying space and/or modifying the microenvironment in ways that prevent harmful bacteria from gaining a foothold [91]. More importantly, the commensal flora provides a type of training to the immune system. Like a sparing partner in boxing, the immune system’s interactions with the normal commensal flora provides an education that is indispensable when a pathogenic opponent is encountered …

What is perhaps of larger concern is that the harmful effects of diet can actually stretch across generations. A mother’s diet may potentially shape her child’s flavor preferences even before birth, potentially skewing their palette towards anything from vegetables to sugary sweets in ways that could influence subsequent propensity for obesity and/or unhealthy dieting [108]. In addition, children inherit their microbiome from their mother mostly through parturition but also during breast-feeding and development until the bacterial balance matures around two to four years of age [92,109]. However, recent evidence suggests that the microbiome may also be seeded into the unborn fetus while still in the womb [109,110] (Figure 1B). When the mother’s diet causes a harmful imbalance of her bacteria, she passes this imbalance on to her child and thus fails to present the ideal commensals for a proper immune education during her child’s most critical developmental window [52]. This developmental dysbiosis leaves the offspring’s immune system poorly trained to fight off infections and encourages autoimmune and allergic diseases [52] …

Genetically modified (GM) foods
It is a concerning finding that pesticides like glyphosate induces cellular death in human umbilical, placental, embryonic, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at physiologic levels …

In animal models, the combination of pesticide-producing GM maize and pesticide-resistant GM soy led to increased rates of severe stomach inflammation …

However, an additional concern was raised when studies revealed that functional genes, from both industrial and natural sources, ingested by animals could be internalized by gut bacteria, these bacteria transcribe the engrafted genes into functional proteins, and the genetic changes could be inherited by offspring via microbiome transfer [215-218]. Human corollary was uncovered when researchers showed that an intact and functional industrial gene could be found in bacteria from the small bowel of patients with ileostomies …

Of potentially greatest concern, our poor dietary behaviors are encoded into both our DNA scaffolding and gut microbiome, and thus these harmful immune modifications are passed to our offspring during their most critical developmental window. Therefore, given the scope of influence, the vast economic impacts, and the potential for trans-generational inheritance, the dietary impacts on immune health should thus, at minimum, be afforded a level of attention equal to that given to the dietary impacts on cardiovascular health.

Read the study

Click PLAY to hear Refusers song Right To Know

Posted in The Blog | Leave a comment

Prescription painkillers kill more people than heroin and cocaine combined – Journal of Public Health

American Journal of Public Health June 17, 2014

First major review provides evidence of sharp increase in deaths from painkillers in US and Canada and leading causes.

The number of deaths involving commonly prescribed painkillers is higher than the number of deaths by overdose from heroin and cocaine combined, according to researchers at McGill University. In a first-of-its-kind review of existing research, the McGill team has put the spotlight on a major public health problem: the dramatic increase in deaths due to prescribed painkillers, which were involved in more than 16,000 deaths in 2010 in the U.S. alone. Currently, the US and Canada rank #1 and #2 in per capita opioid consumption.

“Prescription painkiller overdoses have received a lot of attention in editorials and the popular press, but we wanted to find out what solid evidence is out there,” says Nicholas King, of the Biomedical Ethics Unit in the Faculty of Medicine. In an effort to identify and summarize available evidence, King and his team conducted a systematic review of existing literature, comprehensively surveying the scientific literature and including only reports with quantitative evidence.

“We also wanted to find out why thousands of people in the U.S and Canada are dying from prescription painkillers every year, and why these rates have climbed steadily during the past two decades,” says Nicholas King, of the Biomedical Ethics Unit in the Faculty of Medicine. “We found evidence for at least 17 different determinants of increasing opioid-related mortality, mainly, dramatically increased prescription and sales of opioids; increased use of strong, long-acting opioids like Oxycontin and methadone; combined use of opioids and other (licit and illicit) drugs and alcohol; and social and demographic factors.”

“We found little evidence that Internet sales of pharmaceuticals and errors by doctors and patients — factors commonly cited in the media — have played a significant role,” Prof. King adds.

The findings point to a complicated “epidemic” in which physicians, users, the health care system, and the social environment all play a role, according to the researchers.

“Our work provides a reliable summary of the possible causes of the epidemic of opioid overdoses, which should be useful for clinicians and policy makers in North America in figuring out what further research needs to be done, and what strategies might or might not be useful in reducing future mortality,” says King. “And as efforts are made to increase access to prescription opioids outside of North America, our findings might be useful in preventing other countries from following the same path as the U.S. and Canada.”



American Journal of Public Health June 12, 2014

Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review

Nicholas B. King is with the Biomedical Ethics Unit and the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec. Veronique Fraser is with the Biomedical Ethics Unit, McGill University. Constantina Boikos, Robin Richardson, and Sam Harper are with the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University.


We found a complex, multifaceted, and geographically varied web of determinants of increased opioid-related mortality.

Prescriber Behavior
Our review identified 5 ways in which the behavior of opioid prescribers may have played a role in increased opioid-related mortality: prescribing more opioids, prescribing higher doses of opioids, prescribing oxycodone, prescribing methadone, and prescribing at high volumes.

Prescription and sales of opioids.
Since the early 1990s, prescription and sales of opioid analgesics have risen steeply. Between 1999 and 2010, sales of prescription painkillers to US hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies increased 4-fold, with an accompanying increase in opioid-related mortality.2 The number of opioid prescriptions dispensed from US retail pharmacies increased from 174.1 million in 2000 to 256.9 million in 2009.57 In 2006, Americans consumed 115 272 kilograms of opioids, more than twice as much as in 199710; in Canada, prescription opioid consumption doubled between 2000 and 2010.58 In 2008, a Utah Department of Health survey showed that 21% of adults had been prescribed an opioid pain medication in the preceding 12 months.59 Prescription of opioid analgesics for chronic noncancer pain in particular has increased.12 Between 1980 and 2000, US prescriptions of opioids for chronic musculoskeletal pain doubled, and rates for more potent opioids quadrupled.13 According to one estimate, 9.6 million to 11.5 million adults were on long-term opioid therapy in the United States during 2005.60 We found 8 studies1,2,14—19 providing evidence that increased prescriptions for opioids may have played a role in increased opioid-related mortality. Canadian studies showed correlations between mortality and consumption of 4 prescription opioids (fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, and hydromorphone) in 2 provinces1 and correlations between opioid prescribing rates and mortality rates across Ontario counties.14 Similarly, in a study of North Carolina counties, there were correlations between opioid sales, emergency department visits for overdoses, and opioid-related mortality.16 A US study also demonstrated a state-level association between overall opioid consumption and drug poisoning mortality.17 Opioid dosage. As overall opioid prescriptions have increased, so too have prescribed dosages. For example, a study of workers’ compensation claims in the state of Washington showed that the average daily morphine-equivalent dose (MED) of long-acting opioids increased 50% between 1996 and 2002 and exceeded the recommended “red flag” dose by 2005.13 We found 7 studies5,12,20—24 providing evidence of the contribution of increased dosages to increased opioid-related mortality. A study of social assistance recipients in Ontario showed that, between 2003 and 2008, there were increases in the mean daily doses of oxycodone (increase of 27.4%) and fentanyl (increase of 14.2%) dispensed, whereas doses remained flat for other opioids.21 By 2008, one third of prescriptions for long-acting oxycodone exceeded clinical guidelines with respect to mean daily dose,21 and patients receiving higher doses had higher rates of overdose, opioid-related mortality, and all-cause mortality.21,22 A study of patients receiving opioids for chronic noncancer pain in a health maintenance organization in Washington State also showed that the risk of overdose increased with increased dosages.12 It was noted in this study that, although overdose risk was higher at high doses, most overdoses occurred at low to moderate doses because such doses are prescribed more frequently, suggesting that even the most frequently used dose regimens carry some risk. The importance of increased dosages is supported by evidence indicating a dose—response relationship between maximum daily prescribed dose and risk of death.12,20,22,24 However, there does not seem to be an evidence based threshold for what constitutes a dangerously high dose. Although some clinical guidelines suggest an MED of 200 milligrams per day as a “watchful dose,” studies in our sample showed overdose and mortality increases at doses ranging from 40 to 200 milligrams per day MED.12,20,22,24

Prescription of oxycodone.
Prescription of more potent opioids, particularly methadone and longacting formulations of oxycodone, has increased most rapidly, with associated increases in mortality. Before 1990, weaker opioids such as codeine and meperidine were used more frequently than stronger formulations.17 Between 1997 and 2006, US retail sales of methadone increased 1177%, sales of oxycodone increased 732%, and sales of fentanyl increased 479%, whereas sales of hydromorphone, hydrocodone, and morphine increased between 196% and 274% and sales of codeine and meperidine dropped 25% and 28%, respectively.10 Studies of workers’ compensation claims in Washington State between 1996 and 2002 showed that whereas overall opioid prescriptions increased 25%, prescriptions for the more potent Schedule II opioids increased by almost 250%, with an accompanying increase in opioid-related mortality.13,25 Similarly, a North Carolina study demonstrated significant increases in prescriptions of oxycodone (839%), methadone, (607%) and fentanyl (530%) and significant decreases in prescriptions of meperidene and codeine between 1997 and 2010.16 We found 7 studies5,17,18,21,23,26,27 that provided evidence for the contribution of prescription of oxycodone, particularly the longacting formulation OxyContin, to increased opioid-related mortality. Long-acting opioids such as Oxy-Contin may be particularly dangerous when used recreationally: crushing pills releases high doses of the drug, and repeated use to increase or maintain a narcotic effect may lead to overdose. In addition, recreational users may avoid formulations that include opioids along with acetaminophen because of hepatoxicity.17 A study of patients in the Ontario public drug plan between 2003 and 2008 showed that whereas prescription rates for long-acting oxycodone more than doubled, rates for all other opioids decreased or remained flat, and opioid-related mortality increased.21 Other Ontario studies showed that annual opioid-related mortality rates increased 41% and oxycodone-related mortality increased 416% after OxyContin was added to the provincial drug formulary5 and that oxycodone was involved in one third of all opioid-related deaths between 2006 and 2008.23

Prescription of methadone.
We found 14 studies17—19,26—36 that provided evidence for the contribution of methadone prescriptions to increased opioid-related mortality. Methadone’s unusual pharmacology poses particular challenges because of the small difference between therapeutic and toxic doses.34 There is also some evidence that prescribers may prefer methadone for economic rather than clinical reasons. Because methadone is a cheaper generic drug, private insurers, Medicaid, and individual clinicians may prefer it over more expensive, patent-protected alternatives, thus driving increases in methadone prescriptions.30,34,57 There is evidence that a high proportion of opioid-related deaths have involved methadone. Studies conducted in Washington State,30 Oklahoma,18 and West Virginia32 have shown that methadone is involved in higher numbers of deaths than any other opioid, and a US study revealed that methadone was involved in twice as many single-drug deaths as any other opioid.31 A US ecological study conducted in 2002 suggested that methadone (43%) and oxycodone (46%) explained a large proportion of the geographic variation in opioid related mortality.17 Although methadone has traditionally been prescribed to combat substance abuse in methadone maintenance programs, it is increasingly being used for its original purpose, pain relief. We found some evidence that the use of methadone for pain relief has played a role in increased mortality. A Vermont study showed that although the percentage of drug overdose deaths that were methadone related increased from 12% to 37% between 2001 and 2006, only 2 of 76 decedents were in a methadone maintenance program.33 A Utah study showed that, between 1997 and 2004, population-adjusted methadone prescription rates increased 727% and opioid-related mortality increased 1770%. During this period, rates of heroin abuse and admissions to substance abuse facilities remained unchanged, suggesting that the increased prescriptions and associated mortality resulted primarily from prescriptions for pain.19 By contrast, a New Mexico study revealed a slight decrease in methadone related deaths between 1998 and 2002 and a higher proportion of decedents with prescriptions related to methadone maintenance (45%).36

High-volume prescribing.
The possible contribution of high volume prescribing to opioidrelated mortality has received considerable attention in the media61 and scholarly literature.2,57 Some states report problems with so-called “pill mills,” which prescribe large quantities of opioids to patients with questionable diagnoses. 2 We found 1study37 providing evidence that high-volume prescribing may have played a role in increased opioid-related mortality. A study of Ontario family physicians showed that the top quintile of prescribers issued opioid prescriptions 4.5 times more frequently than the next quintile and wrote the final opioid prescription in 63% of opioid-related deaths. However, it is still unclear whether high-volume prescribing is a direct driver of increased mortality.


Posted in The Blog | 1 Comment